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The Top 6 Evidence-Based Coronavirus Supplements

The following is a list of supplements surfacing from data mining as possible COVID-19 matches based on past respiratory coronaviruses, and emerging COVID-19 clinical research studies. We will continue to apply as much care as possible to track all available data matches as it continues emerging in real-time. This article receives updates as the research unfolds, so do subscribe.

Always consult with a medical professional before engaging in any activity, as we base all data on clinical research studies, seen at the bottom of the article. No single compound is yet surfacing as effective in treating COVID-19. Health and healthy lifestyles, much like most diseases, continue to perform as the highest and best prevention and outcome strategies. Stay tuned for a review of top effective prevention practices through health and a healthy lifestyle.

1) Vitamin D3

According to Dr. Andrew Weil, “deficient levels of vitamin D levels have been linked to viral susceptibility.” He recommends supplementing 3,000 to 5,000 IU. According to Dr. Rhonda Patrick, “vitamin D3 is not just a vitamin and is a steroid hormone that regulates over 5% of the protein-encoding human genome and is vital to our health.”

The skin produces this fat-soluble vitamin through steroid hormone conversion of UV-B sunlight exposure from the sun. Various elements pose challenges to this critical need, as we believe 70% of Americans have vitamin D3 insufficiency, while we believe 28% are deficient. According to the Endocrine Society, plasma levels of Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) of less than 20 ng/ml represents a deficiency, while serum levels less than 30 ng/ml represent an insufficiency.

We have found older adults to be 63% more likely to be deficient and 46% more likely to be insufficient than young adults. Also discovered is a 70-year-old produces four times less vitamin D than a 20-year-old.

Because of melanin, non-Hispanics blacks experience significantly higher rates of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency versus non-Hispanic whites. A recent CDC hospitalization survey of 14 states found that 48% of hospitalizations were comprised of obese individuals, whereas 33% were non-Hispanic blacks, who only make up 13% of the overall population. Non-Hispanic whites undergo hospitalization rates of 48% while representing 76% of the total population.

A similar study confirmed similar results with Somalians, living in Sweden. If one is taking a vitamin D supplement, a combination product with vitamin K2 is an appropriate selection. Vitamin D3 supplementation alone may promote blood vessel calcification and heart disease, while vitamin K may help prevent it.

Finally, vitamin D increases the expression of the ACE2 enzyme, initially discovered as the coronavirus host receptor site, much like SARS-COV-1. COVID-19 enters the lungs via the body’s ACE2 enzyme. The Balance of ACE and ACE2 within the renin-angiotensin system is critically important in acute lung injury prevention. We have identified males and older aged individuals to have lower ACE2 levels and more at risk.

2) Zinc Ionophores: (EGCG, Green Tea, Matcha Green, Quercetin)

Genome matching found coronavirus (COVID-19), to be the closest virus match to SARS-COV-1, followed by MERS and the remaining Coronaviruses within the “family” of Coronaviruses. Data analytics discovered 34 COVID-19 related genes and 24 disease-related pathways with 78 drug matches identified for repurposing. Zinc ionophores, (zinc-binding agents), are one of these believed targets.

Noted hepatotoxicity, (liver damage), is a side effect of EGCG when used at 800 mg per day, so daily green tea remains an optimal alternative. Matcha green tea contains more than 3 times the antioxidants as green tea, with more EGCG. Daily matcha green tea remains a top choice amongst health optimizers.

An emerging hypothesis points to the consumption of exorbitant amounts of green tea explaining the extraordinarily low numbers we are seeing in Japan. Japan has been testing at low numbers, so this remains to be clear. We can also find Quercetin in berries, leafy vegetables, broccoli, peppers, apples, grapes, black tea, green tea, red wine.

3) Zinc: (Zinc Gluconate Lozenges, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Sulphate)

Zinc is being used in hospitals as a frontline treatment for acute cases in doses of 225 mg. Zinc lozenges have continued to be one of the top natural antiviral options for previous viruses. While a deficiency will impair the ability of the body to fight off infection, taking extra zinc is not an effective strategy in the prevention of viral infections. We have shown zinc to be effective in treating previous respiratory tract viral infections. A key symptom with coronavirus patients is the loss of a sense of smell, pointing to a severe zinc deficiency.

The story of zinc gluconate lozenges began in 1984 when biohacker George Eby made headlines by showing that zinc gluconate lozenges, when taken every two hours at the beginning of symptoms, reduced the duration of the common cold from 11 to 4 days. He later applied for and received a patent for zinc gluconate lozenges as the “cure for the common cold.” Since then, many manufacturers have offered zinc lozenges with elderberry, which is a proven compound for the flu. Increasingly, elderberry, the common zinc lozenge additive, is not optimal for this respiratory infection, as explained in the reference section.

According to the Linus Pauling Institute, the daily dosage should be no more than 40mg and can be counter-productive to hydrochloric acid production in the gut and copper balance. Zinc deficiency affects 2 billion people and is very common amongst the elderly. Medical doctors and researchers advise zinc lozenges to be used at the first sign of symptoms.

Daily RDA, depending on the individual, has ranged from 15 to 30 mg, which a multivitamin adequately covers. While hospitals are administering zinc sulfate, we have found zinc picolinate to be the most bioavailable oral form of zinc in previous studies.

4) Multi-Vitamin/Mineral: (Copper, Iodine, Magnesium, Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (Niacin), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B9, (Folate), Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Zinc)

We have linked deficiencies of key micronutrients to inhibition of the body’s ability to fight off infections. We have considered iodine a full-spectrum antiviral. Selenium is important and required for immune health. We need magnesium for a broad range of activities and processes in the body. It is the single most common mineral deficiency in humans. Along with vitamin C, D, and Omega-3’s, magnesium plays a hefty role in immunity.

A good multi-vitamin can provide the correct RDA amount of daily zinc. Thiamine (vitamin B1), is being used in the ICU along with IV magnesium and IV vitamin C. Large doses of an oral vitamin are not seeing support for C for the prevention and treatment of this respiratory disease. Invariably vitamin C deficiency is highly problematic for disease outcomes, as previously mentioned.

There is only one study that suggests combining oral vitamin C with IV administered vitamin C is effective. As in other micronutrients found within a good multi-vitamin/mineral, a balanced diet can meet the RDA for vitamin C and vitamin A. A good multivitamin is an efficient cost-effective strategy to ensure full spectrum micro-nutrient coverage.

5) Melatonin

Another data mining study, found melatonin to be a top match for protection against coronavirus. The melatonin theory is interesting. We can infer its implications similar to our understanding of ACE2 expression declining with age. Bats do not suffer from the virus that they transmit, and likewise neither do children. Both bats and children have much higher levels of melatonin.

Researchers believe with an explosion of reactive oxygen species viruses generate melatonin, which declines in age, is the best natural antioxidant. When taken at higher doses, melatonin inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome and can inhibit cytokine storm syndrome. Melatonin can block the cellular death and lung damage caused by coronaviruses. This is because of its protection against this inflammasome responsible for these negative outcomes. It is being used in hospital settings as a frontline treatment option in larger doses.

Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory, and the anti-oxidative molecule are protective against ALI/ARDS. Used for the reduction of vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improved sleep quality, we believe melatonin is being involved in the improvement of outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Anxiety impairs the immune response and sleep deprivation. Melatonin improves sleep habits, reduces anxiety, and stimulates immunity.

The most dangerous COVID-19 complication may be fibrosis. We show melatonin to prevent fibrosis. Oxidative stress caused by mechanical ventilation may be necessary but imposes risks. We believe melatonin can reduce oxidative stress, it can improve outcomes, with or without the use of ventilators.

6) Plant Lectins (Stinging Nettle)

Identified as “potent inhibitors” of coronaviruses in one study, plant lectins, such as stinging nettle block the replication of previous coronaviruses at two original target sites when infected within a 3 to 4 day incubation period. We find these targets early in the replication cycle, likely affecting viral attachment, and towards the end of the infectious viral cycle. From amongst 33 different plant lectins tested, the strongest anti-coronavirus activity tested against SARS-CoV is surfacing as those with mannose-binding lectins.

Mannose-binding plant lectins that showed antiviral protection against the SARS-CoV and FIPV viruses included amaryllis, snowdrop, daffodil, red spider lily, leek, ramsons, Taro, cymbidium orchid, twayblade, broad-leaved helleborine, tulip, black mulberry tree. The other plant lectins antiviral against both included stinging nettle and the tobacco plant. Nicotine is emerging as a hospital therapeutic, and you can read my recent letter to the editor on drug repurposing.

In previous studies, plant lectins have shown to have inhibiting effects on other pathogenic diseases and cancer cells. From this group, stinging nettle contains quercetin and has zinc ionophore activity. We have also confirmed it as effective against coronaviruses in animal studies. Further studies need to confirm these promising findings. Because of the powerful support for the use of zinc ionophores, stinging nettle seems most shown amongst this group.

Notable 6 with Strong Evidence From Betacoronaviruses

Astragalus, black seed oil: (Nigella sativa, black cumin seed, Nigella indica), Chinese skullcap, Japanese knotweed, licorice root, Rhodiola rosea.

(*Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) instead of licorice root, for those with hypertension.)

Why are Elderberry, Medicinal Mushrooms, and Probiotics not Listed?

As many are aware, these compounds continue to show powerful support for immune health. During an active infection, and especially with those with autoimmune disease, one could increase cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), with the use of medicinal mushrooms, elderberry, prebiotics or probiotics, because of activation of intrinsic immune function. Those showing symptoms of COVID-19 can see general advisories to stop the use of elderberry, medicinal mushrooms, and pre and probiotics, and only use them outside of active infection. To be clear, evidence suggests isolated polysaccharide extracts from mushrooms, and not mushrooms and mycelium extracts, such as beta-glucans, increase IL-1b in immune response, and can contribute to adverse outcomes.

Why are NAC, Garlic, and Echinacea not Listed?

The evidence for support of oral NAC, (n-acetyl-cysteine), appears to be strain-dependent. As a whole, NAC is only effective across strains when used in a nebulizer form with heparin. Garlic possesses powerful anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Immune system stimulation via garlic has been through the activation of protective white blood cells, such as NK cells and macrophages. While garlic can support your immune system and defend against previous coronaviruses, they have not proven it effective against COVID-19. We can make similar commentary about echinacea.

Others with Immune Support Evidence: (Bold are Those with Betacoronavirus Evidence

Acacia fiber, acai berry, alpha-lipoic acid, Ang 1–7, andrographis paniculata, berberine: (barberry, bidens pilosagoldenseal, Oregon grape root)bonesetchickweedcinnamon, cordyceps, curcumin, red sage (dan shen)dong quai, elderberry, frankincense, ginkgo bilobahawthorn, hesperidin, hesperetin, honeysucklehorse chestnut, Korean red panax ginseng, kudzu, lion’s mane mushroom, luteolin, maitake, monolaurin, mushroom, noni leaf, oats, oat fiber, olive oilolive leaf, oregano, oregano oil, pelargonium sidoides, prebiotics, probiotics, propolis, psyllium fiber, red root, resveratrol, reishi mushroom, rosmarinic acid, rosemary, shitake mushroom, soluble fiber, turkey tail mushroom, weeping forsythia.

Others Anecdotally Used for Immune Support and Lacking Supporting Evidence:

Colloidal silver, kratom (mitragyna speciosa), methylene blue.

Your Friend in Prosperity,

Mark Stein

Vitamin D3

Zinc Ionophores


Multi-vitamin/ Mineral


Plant Lectins

Other References